Phonemes that are contrastive in certain environments may not be contrastive in all environments. In the environments where they do not contrast, the contrast is said to be neutralized . In these positions it may become less clear which phoneme a given phone represents. Some phonologists prefer not to specify a unique phoneme in such cases, since to do so would mean providing redundant or even arbitrary information – instead they use the technique of underspecification . An archiphoneme is an object sometimes used to represent an underspecified phoneme.
Error analysis can be a great tool in a writing class as there is a chance to collect errors on a large scale and document them. Speaking classes may not offer ample opportunity to fully assess errors, but logging errors, physically or mentally, will provide the educator a chance to formulate beliefs and strategies to deal with these errors. Also, depending on whether the class focuses on accuracy or fluency, errors will have varying degrees of importance. Error analysis can show glimpses into the mind of the student, but the errors do not always reveal the source of the problem. The educator has to be careful of assuming why the error happened. What is important is the error is happening and how the educator can present the correct usage in a manner that helps the student correct it.
Similar to the Petrarchan sonnet writers, Shakespeare begins Sonnet 1 with the exaltation of the beloved's physical beauty, before changing to a tone of contempt for the beloved's lack of a desire for an heir.  However, according to Robert Matz, "Sonnet 1 is so far from the romantic desires we usually associate with sonnets that no woman is even mentioned in it... But while there is no woman in this sonnet it is not the case that there is no desire. On the contrary, Shakespeare continually expresses his desire for the young man whom he calls 'beauty's rose' and who, he warns, must like a rose reproduce himself".  The allusion to the rose is a particularly significant because it was uncommon for the rose, a symbol for femininity, to be used to refer to a man.  At the end of the first quatrain, Shakespeare's pun on the word "tender" (to mean both the obvious meaning of youth and beauty and the less obvious sense of currency to alleviate a debt) further illustrates the beloved's need to reproduce in order to pay off his debt of chastity .