Essay on aristotle politics

In his doctrine of knowledge and its aspects, Aristotle distinguished “dialectic” from “apodictic” knowledge. The sphere of the former is “opinion” gained from experience, whereas the sphere of the latter is trustworthy knowledge. Although opinion may also attain an extremely high level of probability in its content, Aristotle considered that experience is not the last instance of trustworthiness in knowledge because the highest principles of knowledge are directly contemplated by the mind. Aristotle saw the goal of scientific knowledge as the complete definition of an object, achievable only by combining deduction and induction: first, knowledge about each separate property must be gained from experience and, second, the conviction that this property is essential must be proved by the conclusion of a special logical form—the categorical syllogism. With his doctrine of proof, the research on the categorical syllogism conducted by Aristotle in his Analytics became the central part of his logical teaching. Aristotle understood the connection between the three terms of the syllogism as a reflection of the connection between consequence, cause, and causal agent. The basic principle of the syllogism expresses the connection between general class, less general class, and the particular object. The aggregate of scientific knowledge cannot be subsumed under a single system of concepts because there is no such concept which could be the predicate of all the other concepts. For Aristotle, therefore, it seemed necessary to indicate all the higher general classes—the categories—under which the remaining classes of being could be subsumed.

Aristotle's major works are typically grouped into the following categories: primary philosophy, practical science, logic, natural philosophy, rhetoric, and poetics. (The works on rhetoric and poetics are sometimes classified as practical science.) Such rubrics may seem a bit confusing to modern students of Aristotle; what Aristotle referred to as "practical science" includes his writings on ethics and politics (works we might think of as simply "philosophy"); what he classified as "natural philosophy" includes his works in the areas of physics, psychology, and biology (topics we would refer to as "science"). This volume attempts to group Aristotle's works in a manner reflective of critical consensus, as well as to provide entry headings which would both guide users according to modern conceptions of the terms "science" and "philosophy" and honor traditional classifications. The entry Philosophy includes coverage of Metaphysics, Ethics, and Politics; the entry Rhetoric covers Rhetoric; the entry Science covers the works on logic (including, for example, Categories and Posterior Analytics), biological works (such as On the Generation of Animals), and psychological works (such as De Anima [On the Soul]). This entry also includes coverage of Physics. Finally, the entry Poetics focuses on Aristotle's Poetics. Each entry's introduction provides a more detailed account of the primary works in that field of study; a brief overview of the textual history of those works; and a survey of the critical reception and interpretation of those works.

There is yet another activity few people engage in which is required to live a truly happy life, according to Aristotle: intellectual contemplation. Since our nature is to be rational, the ultimate perfection of our natures is rational reflection. This means having an intellectual curiosity which perpetuates that natural wonder to know which begins in childhood but seems to be stamped out soon thereafter. For Aristotle, education should be about the cultivation of character, and this involves a practical and a theoretical component. The practical component is the acquisition of a moral character, as discussed above. The theoretical component is the making of a philosopher. Here there is no tangible reward, but the critical questioning of things raises our minds above the realm of nature and closer to the abode of the gods.

Consider the situation of this final paper - It has taken me multiple hours to complete, and I have had troubles in writing it, but I write it to achieve a greater goal, a good grade. By achieving a good grade I will pass this class, and thus be happy, but there is always the chance that I may not get a good grade thus not achieving happiness. This possibility now presents a problem in all theories. No matter what we do, if we complete our duties and if we are morally virtuous, there are always cases that have the possibility of hindering us from achieving happiness even if that was our goal. Thus one must never lead his life by the assumptions of others, on what paths must be taken in order to achieve happiness or a good life. We must lead our own lives to the best of our ability, and in being at ease knowing we have made our own paths, then and only then can we really be happy. Overall Aristotle's teachings have pointed out that happiness as an end in itself is the ultimate end and function of human beings. The only method of reaching this happiness is through reason. A life that does not exercise the role to reason will end up in some way being incomplete and never reach perfection. Therefore, reason is not only good for us but needed to reach an absolute existence.

Being the other day at Armaignac, on the estate of a kinsman of mine, I there saw a country fellow who was by every one nicknamed the thief. He thus related the story of his life; that being born a beggar, and finding that he should not be able, so as to be clear of indigence, to get his living by the sweat of his brow, he resolved to turn thief, and by means of his strength of body, had exercised this trade all the time of his youth in great security; for he ever made his harvest and vintage in other men’s grounds, but a great way off, and in so great quantities, that it was not to be imagined one man could have carried away so much in one night upon his shoulders; and, moreover, was careful equally to divide and distribute the mischief he did, that the loss was of less importance to every particular man. He is now grown old, and rich for a man of his condition, thanks to his trade, which he openly confesses to every one. And to make his peace with God, he says, that he is daily ready by good offices to make satisfaction to the successors of those he has robbed, and if he do not finish (for to do it all at once he is not able) he will then leave it in charge to his heirs to perform the rest, proportionably to the wrong he himself only knows he has done to each. By this description, true or false, this man looks upon theft as a dishonest action, and hates it, but less than poverty, and simply repents; but to the extent he has thus recompensed, he repents not. This is not that habit which incorporates us into vice, and conforms even our understanding itself to it; nor is it that impetuous whirlwind that by gusts troubles and blinds our souls and for the time precipitates us, judgment and all, into the power of vice.

Essay on aristotle politics

essay on aristotle politics

Consider the situation of this final paper - It has taken me multiple hours to complete, and I have had troubles in writing it, but I write it to achieve a greater goal, a good grade. By achieving a good grade I will pass this class, and thus be happy, but there is always the chance that I may not get a good grade thus not achieving happiness. This possibility now presents a problem in all theories. No matter what we do, if we complete our duties and if we are morally virtuous, there are always cases that have the possibility of hindering us from achieving happiness even if that was our goal. Thus one must never lead his life by the assumptions of others, on what paths must be taken in order to achieve happiness or a good life. We must lead our own lives to the best of our ability, and in being at ease knowing we have made our own paths, then and only then can we really be happy. Overall Aristotle's teachings have pointed out that happiness as an end in itself is the ultimate end and function of human beings. The only method of reaching this happiness is through reason. A life that does not exercise the role to reason will end up in some way being incomplete and never reach perfection. Therefore, reason is not only good for us but needed to reach an absolute existence.

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